European dark bee (Apis mellifera mellifera)
The European dark bee (Apis mellifera mellifera) was domesticated in modern times, and taken to North America in colonial times. These small, dark-colored honey bees are sometimes called the German black bee, although they occurred originally from Britain to eastern Central Europe.
The Buckfast bees are a species with a heritage that mainly comes from A.m. ligurica (North Italian), A.m. mellifera (English), A.m. mellifera (French), A.m. anatolica (Turkish), and A.m. cecropia (Greek). This is in addition to a heritage from two rare and docile African stocks, A.m. sahariensis and A.m. monticola.
The Buckfast bee was developed by "Brother Adam", (born Karl Kehrle on 3 August 1898 in Germany), who was in charge of beekeeping at Buckfast Abbey, where the bees are still bred today. Most of the breeding work in Europe is done by breeders belonging to the breeders accociation "Gemeinschaft der Europäischen Buckfastimker".
This organisation is maintaining a pedigree for Buckfast bees, originating from Brother Adam's years.
Caucasian honey bee (Apis mellifera caucasica)
The Caucasian honey bee originates from the high valleys of the Central Caucasus.
Georgia is the “central homeland” for this species, it can be found in eastern Turkey, Armenia and Azerbaijan.
Italian bee (Apis mellifera ligustica)
The Italian honey bee is thought to originate from the continental part of Italy, south of the Alps, and north of Sicily. The subspecies may have survived the last Ice Age in Italy. It's genetically a different subspecies than that from the Iberian peninsula and from Sicily. It is the most widely distributed of all honey bees, and has proven adaptable to most climates from subtropical to cool temperate, but it is less satisfactory in humid tropical regions.
Western honey bee or European honey bee (Apis mellifera)
The western honey bee or European honey bee (Apis mellifera) is a species of honey bee. The genus Apis is Latin for "bee", and mellifera comes from Latin melli- "honey" and ferre "to bear"—hence the scientific name means "honey-bearing bee". The name was coined in 1758 by Carolus Linnaeus who, upon realizing the bees do not bear honey, but nectar, tried later to correct it to Apis mellifica ("honey-making bee") in a subsequent publication. However, according to the rules of synonymy in zoological nomenclature, the older name has precedence. As of October 28, 2006, the Honey Bee Genome Sequencing Consortium fully sequenced and analyzed the genome of Apis mellifera.